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When the Rice Huller(LIANGGONG) runs, we introduce rice into the hopper. The part of the rotor which is located below the hopper acts as an Archimedes screw, and "pushes" the rice to the other end of the rotor. Once some of the rice has passed into the body of the huller, it is driven by the horizontal stries of the central part of the rotor into a rotational movement.

When the grains of the non-husked rice arrives at the knife, the space it has to move along (between the rotor and the knife) is heavily reduced. The knife opposes the rotation of grains. The chaff and the bran surrounding it then "rub" along the edge of the knife and the elevations of the rotor, leading to their separation of the grain by necking and scouring. This allows the husking of the rice. The level of scouring is set by the opening of the exit for the husked rice: the more it is closed, the more the rice is forced to stay longer in the device, which accentuates the shelling. The pieces in which the bran and the chaff are cut, are small enough to pass through the sieve.

While revolving around the rotor, the rice also advances towards the exit, driven by the rice still located in the feed hopper. Once it arrives at the exit, it can escape through an opening with a especially for this purpose created form. The position of the release is placed relatively high, which allows the last separation between the rice and the chaff which has not yet been evacuated by the sieve. The grains of the rice, because of its weight, is projected onto the exit by inertia. The lighter chaff remains in the body of the huller and continues to turn until exits through the sieve. This separation allows to not require the winnowing (separation of dust and remaining waste) of the rice produced by this huller.

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Separation of paddy and rice on an oscillating type Paddy Separator(LIANGGONG) takes place due to difference in specific gravity and surface characteristics of paddy and rice.

When a mixture of paddy and rice falls on a separator having a serrated surface and is oscillated at the appropriate frequency, rice settles down under the layer of paddy. If the inclination of deck exceeds the angle of friction between the rice and paddy, the paddy moves down the deck on top of the layer of rice. This angle of inclination exceeds the angle of rolling friction between the paddy and the material of the deck and the paddy after having been separated from the layer of rice rolls down on the deck surface. Serrations provided on the deck surface are so shaped that they prevent the rice from sliding down.

The values of amplitude of frequency of deck oscillation are such that rice can slide up the deck surface in successive steps per cycle of deck motion and finally reach the rice outlet where the grains escape. The equations of motion of rice on a deck surface have been analysed and the conveying velocity computed. The observed and computed velocities have been found to be in reasonable agreement with each other.

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Rice Huller(LIANGGONG) is one of the most important rice milling machinery in rice processing project. Rice huller is an agricultural machine used to automate the process of removing the chaff (the outer husks) of grains of rice. Operating rice huller in right way will prolong the machine life, making more benefits for users. Then what should customers pay attention to when operating a rice huller or paddy husker machine?

1, The rice huller operator have the right to refuse to perform the violation of safety operating instructions, force the illegal operation, regardless of the consequences, shall be seriously investigated force the responsibility. If the operator blind obedience of illegal operation, he or she will be responsible to direct operation;

2, All the mechanics and mechanical operation person must strictly implement the mechanical equipment maintenance regulations and safe operating procedures,

3, Rice huller equipment should be used according to the original machine technical performance, and must implement the system of regulation and regular maintenance system. Keep doing cleaning, lubrication fastening, adjustment and anticorrosive work about rice huller before operation and after operation, the operation .

4, Rice Huller must be conducted in accordance with the provisions for maintenance. It is forbidden to use rice huller or paddy husker machine overload.

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The first Rice Polisher(LIANGGONG) were adapted from whitening machines. They featured a similar vertical cone design but had two basic differences. The first was that the cone was made of a simplified steel wire construction and covered with wood, on to which leather strips were nailed. The second was that the cone rotated at a speed that was 25 percent slower than the vertical cone design.

Unpolished rice naturally has a coarse surface, with ridges that protect individual grooves, where the bran sits. Prior to polishing, the rice must go through a whitening process, designed to level out undulations naturally found in the caryopses of all rice varieties and this helps to remove the majority of the bran. However, the abrasive elements used cannot be made fine enough to remove all of the bran without damaging the grain, which is why polishing is required.

This gentler process, which removes dust, flour and bran residues, uses a pressing and rubbing technique to create friction. As the grains rub against each other, their surfaces are smoothed, removing the remainder of the bran, allowing more light to be reflected, which in turn makes the rice appear whiter and glossier.

The process began with the rice entering the space between the cone and the wire screen, it was then gripped by the leather strips that rolled the grains over each other and against the leather and wire screen. Then, with the application of a small amount of pressure, the remaining bran particles were removed and the rice became shinier or more transparent.

Unfortunately, this method caused breakages, particularly in long grain rice, thus reducing its value. Furthermore, the leather strap needed to be replaced periodically, increasing maintenance costs.

These issues drove further innovations, including the creation of the horizontal polisher, which consisted of three principal parts: a feed screw, a cam roll and screen.

Rice is fed into the machine by gravity, while both the feed screw and cam rolls rotate. The feed screw pushes the rice into the working chamber where a retainer plate, with an adjustable counterweight, creates a controlled pressure on the rice kernels. The fractioning effect is achieved by rolling or rubbing the rice and through displacement. A screen basket covers the cam rolls, allowing a pre-determined distance between them. Air suction enhances the compactness and cools the rice while sucking away the residue.

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Dehusking and milling process removes the outer part of paddy (husk and bran) to make it edible. There are three main types of paddy husker, which includes: Paddy Husker(LIANGGONG), rubber roll and impeller type husker.

Paddy husker are still common in tropical Asia, where BR is immediately milled with either an abrasive or friction mill. It has been reported that types of liner significantly affect the husking performance. It has also been reported that the Engleberg-type or steel hullers are no longer acceptable in the commercial rice milling sector, as they lead to low milling recovery and high grain breakage . Abrasive or friction type milling machines are used to remove the bran. It has been reported that the abrasive mill can over-mill readily. In the Engelberg or huller type mill, dehusking and milling are performed in one step with greater grain breakage.

Using a dehusker before milling improves both the milling and head rice yields. During parboiling treatment the husk splits and loosen, which makes it easier for dehusking . The energy consumption during dehusking process is also induced by the severity of steaming treatment and it tended to have decreased with the increase of steaming time.

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Agriculture is the largest single industry in the world, and seed production is an important segment of this industry. Seed, as it comes from the field, contains various contaminants like weed seeds, other crop seeds, and such inert material as stems, leaves, broken seed, and dirt. Therefore, cleaning of paddy is required. Additionally, non-availability of appropriate Paddy Cleaner machine at reasonable price is one of the major constraints for initiating small/medium scale manufacture of Paddy Cleaner(LIANGGONG).

Therefore, this working is undertaken to develop an efficient low cost paddy cleaner in view of improving the quality paddy cleaner using conventional methods. To check the performance of the paddy cleaner, a total volume of 1.15kg of uncleaned paddy consisting of 1kg of paddy, 0.05kg of dust and 0.1kg of sand was fed into the hopper. After the cleaning process, the output obtained was 1.022kg of cleaned paddy with 0.994kg of paddy, 0.021kg of dust and 0.006kg of sand. Hence the performance of this machine is very efficient where most of the paddy produced is cleaned.

Improper cleaning usually results in grain loss and lower head rice recovery in mills. Cleaning helps to reduce bulkiness during subsequent post-harvest operation. You should remove straw pieces, unfilled grains and other foreign materials. Cleaning and winnowing can be done manually, using wind energy or with the use of machines. You can use traditional winnowers like the winnowing basket and wooden boxes with perforations. Cleaning removes unwanted materials like straws, chaff, weed seeds, soil particles and rubbish from the grain. It improves grain storability, reduces dockage during milling, gives good quality milled rice and improves the milling output. It also reduces insects, pests and disease infestation.

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